https://journalofcomprehensivehealth.co.in/jch/issue/feed Journal of Comprehensive Health 2020-10-08T10:46:58+00:00 Managing Editor - Bobby Paul editorjch@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <p>Journal of Comprehensive Health is the official publication of Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine, West Bengal Chapter. The Journal aims to provide an easily accessible, peer-reviewed, international evidence-base to encourage communication among those engaged in the research, teaching, and application of epidemiology of both communicable and non-communicable disease, including research into health and medical care. Initially two issues will be published annually in electronic format in January and July. The journal allows free access (Open Access) to its contents. The journal’s full text will be available online at www.iapsm-wbc.co.in.</p> https://journalofcomprehensivehealth.co.in/jch/article/view/36 COVID19: Think and Act Differently 2020-10-08T00:54:14+00:00 N K Mandal mandalnirmalkumar@gmail.com <p>In late of December, 2019, COVID 19 pandemic initiated in the form of a cluster of pneumonia cases of unknown origin in Wuhan city of Hubei province, China.<sup>[1,2,3]</sup>&nbsp;The outbreak very rapidly crossed geographic boundary of China and affected several countries including India within a short span of time.<sup>[4,5]</sup>&nbsp;Presence of SARS-CoV-2 in India was first identified in a student returning from China on 30<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;January, 2020.&nbsp;<sup>[6]</sup>&nbsp;‘Deeply concerned both by the alarming levels of spread and severity and by the alarming levels of inaction,’ World Health Organization declared it as Pandemic on 11<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;March 2020.<sup>[7]</sup></p> 2020-10-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Comprehensive Health https://journalofcomprehensivehealth.co.in/jch/article/view/48 COVID Control in India: A Look Back 2020-10-08T10:41:00+00:00 Rivu Basu rivubasu83@gmail.com <h2 id="title" style="font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 14pt; font-weight: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">Just as India witnessed one of the most stringent lockdowns in the world (25.03.20 to 30.5.20)</span><sup style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">&nbsp;1</sup><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;to tackle COVID, and rumours are spreading faster than our minds can understand them, it would be good idea to look back at some of the controversies related to Lockdown and other strategies of COVID control, and what is the way forward. Let us look at some of the features of this virus first before going into a debate of strategies.</span></h2> 2020-10-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Comprehensive Health https://journalofcomprehensivehealth.co.in/jch/article/view/37 COVID-19 Containment: Legal Framework for Regulatory Approach 2020-10-08T00:57:32+00:00 Bratati Banerjee bratati1@hotmail.com <p>Legal instruments and frameworks authorize the Government to exercise its powers for enforcing regulations to contain the situation at the time of any health emergency. During the present pandemic of COVID-19 the International Health Regulations 2005 is being implemented globally, in addition to individual country legislations. Several countries have also framed new Acts, Rules and Regulations or amended the existing ones, to fight the battle.<br><br>With the onset of the pandemic, India has invoked its two existing laws, the Epidemic Diseases Act 1897 and the Disaster Management Act 2005. While the former lays down the public health measures required to be implemented, the latter gives the authorities the power to do so. Using both the laws together is an innovative and comprehensive way to deal with the situation.<br><br></p> 2020-10-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Comprehensive Health https://journalofcomprehensivehealth.co.in/jch/article/view/38 INFODEMICS OF COVID-19: THE ROLE & IMPACT OF MEDIA 2020-10-08T01:00:56+00:00 Rambha Pathak rambha_p@yahoo.com Rashmi Agarawalla rambha_p@yahoo.com Shailesh Gupta rambha_p@yahoo.com <p>The world is facing a pandemic whose speed and severity rivals that of the 1918 influenza epidemic. The disease spreads quite efficiently. The average infected person spreads the disease to two or three others leading to an exponential rate of increase. There is also strong evidence that it can be transmitted by people who are just mildly ill or even presymptomatic and asymptomatic .<sup>1</sup>&nbsp;Covid-19 has already caused 10 times as many cases as SARS in a quarter of the time.<sup>2</sup>&nbsp;Social distancing, the most widely used preventive measures, aims to curtail new infections by reducing physical contact between people<sup>3</sup>. These measures have led to the cancellation of sporting events and conferences, closures of schools and colleges, malls, industries, factories and has forced many businesses to require their employees to work from home&nbsp;<sup>4-5</sup>. To the millions of homebound population of the world due to lockdowns, the digital media remains the only source of information about the disease. Since it has disrupted the daily routines of millions of people worldwide, the people need to be informed and updated about the changing guidelines and instructions issued by the government to maintain safety in this time of crisis. Social media users are spending more time online than ever before. Thus, It cannot be emphasized more than fast and accurate information is very much an essential part of the battle against COVID-19</p> 2020-10-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Comprehensive Health https://journalofcomprehensivehealth.co.in/jch/article/view/39 Occupational Health and Safety Practices at workplace during COVID-19 Pandemic 2020-10-08T01:06:09+00:00 Ankit Viramgami balachandar.rakesh@gmail.com Avinash Pagdhune balachandar.rakesh@gmail.com Kamalesh Sarkar balachandar.rakesh@gmail.com Rakesh Balachandar balachandar.rakesh@gmail.com <p>Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) a highly contagious viral respiratory disease has been declared as pandemic due to its global spread across most countries. Social isolation (i.e. physical distancing) and strict embracement of personal hygiene are few demonstrated preventive methods of COVID-19 transmission. All countries, based on the recommendations of World Health Organization (WHO), have adopted lockdown strategy (promoting physical distancing) to prevent COVID-19 transmission in the community including workplaces. In the interest of economic sustenance, many countries have partially relaxed the lockdown policies, to resume selective functioning of factories / organizations / institutes / workplaces. However, in the absence of appropriate occupational health and safety policies, workplaces are a potential threat for COVID-19 transmission &amp; outbreak. The following document reviews the conventional hierarchy of occupational safety and health control measures (i.e. engineering controls, administrative controls and PPE), necessary to prevent COVID-19 outbreaks at workplace, based on the current scientific evidences on COVID-19.</p> 2020-10-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Comprehensive Health https://journalofcomprehensivehealth.co.in/jch/article/view/47 Structural Vulnerability and Epidemiology of COVID-19 in India- A Socio-epidemiological Approach for Health Promotion 2020-10-08T10:38:19+00:00 Monalisha Sahu drmonalisha@outlook.com Madhumita Dobe drmonalisha@outlook.com Kartikey Yadav drmonalisha@outlook.com <p><strong style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Introduction:</strong><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;COVID-19 (2019 Novel Coronavirus) pandemic is an outcome of a “complex system” of interactions occurring within and between individuals and their environments. The individual-level models, which give sole or primary emphasis to individual choice with their “victim blaming” tendency is insufficient as determinants of risk and risk behaviour. There are ‘structural vulnerabilities’ that are likely to lead to increased exposure to the contagion, risk of basic human needs not being met, insufficient support, or inadequate treatment&nbsp;</span><strong style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Objective:</strong><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;To explore various structural vulnerabilities affecting spread and responses to COVID-19 pandemic.&nbsp;</span><strong style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Method:</strong><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;We have conducted a scoping review of secondary data and statistics on COVID-19 from January 2020 to July 2020 in context of various structural vulnerability across various states and Union Territories of India.</span><strong style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">&nbsp;Result:</strong><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;It was observed that individuals had dynamic and reciprocal association with their physical social, political and economic environments significantly modifying their vulnerabilities to the disease. We classified the various social vulnerabilities majorly faced by individuals into three domains: a) Socio demographic composition b) Spatial distribution across various States and Union territories and c) Migration. It was observed that elderly and male gender were more prone to death by COVID-19 whereas children were found to be less susceptible to the disease. Individuals with underlying illnesses such as cardiovascular diseases (death rate 13.2%), diabetes (death rate 9.2%), high blood pressure (death rate 8.4%), and chronic respiratory diseases (death rate 8%) were at significantly higher risk of mortality. Though the states and cities with maximum connectivity and population density (like Mumbai, Delhi) were afflicted most in the early days of pandemic, but with reverse migration the virus manged to reach even the deepest hinterlands of the country.</span><strong style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">&nbsp;Conclusion:</strong><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;For an efficient response towards the COVID-19 pandemic it is important for policy makers to look through the lens of structural vulnerability and formulate relevant Socio-epidemiological approach.</span></p> 2020-10-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Comprehensive Health https://journalofcomprehensivehealth.co.in/jch/article/view/49 Psychological Impact among Healthcare Workers during COVID-19 Pandemic 2020-10-08T10:42:55+00:00 Vedapriya Dande Rajasekar mailraja84@gmail.com Raja Danasekaran mailraja84@gmail.com <p><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">COVID-19, is a disease which has put entire world in a panic state. This disease is considered as public health emergency of International concern on 30</span><sup style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">th</sup><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;January 2020 by World Health Organization&nbsp;</span><sup style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">[1],</sup><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">. It has a high transmission rate and affects people of all the age groups. Case fatality rate is high among people in the age group more than 70yrs and those with co-morbid conditions.</span><sup style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">[2,3]</sup><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;The rate of infection among front line heath care workers is considerably high and they are more prone to develop psychological illness.</span><sup style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">[4,5,6]</sup><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;Among health care workers psychological wellbeing is as important as physical health. Hence at this present situation we need to address the gap among health care workers and should provide timely psychological support as well as manage the consequences arising due to COVID-19 effectively.</span><br style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><br style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">Health care workers are at risk of contracting the disease as they provide direct care for the patients affected with COVID-19. Rapid spread, severity of illness, uncertainty about the treatment, shortage of resources like personal protective equipments which can aggravate the fear of acquiring the disease.</span><sup style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">[4,5,7,8]</sup><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;The Psychosocial and economic factors like feeling of inadequate support, possibility of transmitting disease to the family, job loss, stigma, economic slowdown can lead to concern and worries.</span><sup style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">[8]</sup><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;Places of recreation is important for better quality of life. But these non-essential services has been restricted to use as lock down was implemented to contain the spread of infection.&nbsp;</span><sup style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">[4,5,]</sup><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;All these factors can act as a major stressor among health care workers.</span></p> 2020-10-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Comprehensive Health https://journalofcomprehensivehealth.co.in/jch/article/view/50 Corona Virus Disease 2019 Pandemic Containment: Supplementing Lockdown with Outbreak Readiness and Comprehensive Response Plan 2020-10-08T10:44:46+00:00 Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava drshrishri2008@gmail.com Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava drshrishri2008@gmail.com <p><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">The Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to expand beyond the capacity and capability of the health care delivery system and is a global public health emergency.</span><sup style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">[1]&nbsp;</sup><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">The upsurge in the number of cases is quite evident with the fact that it took 67 days for the caseload to rise to 100000 cases, but then the subsequent rise in the number of cases has been rapid.</span><sup style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">[1,2]</sup><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;It is important to note that presently the global caseload stands at 2878196 cases, of which 85530 cases were reported in a single day.</span><sup style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">[2]</sup><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;Moreover, the death count attributed to the infection has increased to 198668, with the global case fatality rate has increased to 6.9%, which is very much high in comparison to what has been observed in the case of seasonal influenza.&nbsp;</span><sup style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">[2]</sup></p> 2020-10-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Comprehensive Health https://journalofcomprehensivehealth.co.in/jch/article/view/51 Professor Sandip Kumar Ray 2020-10-08T10:46:58+00:00 Tutul Chatterjee editorjch@gmail.com <p><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">Professor Sandip Kumar Ray, a brilliant, highly committed, renowned Community Medicine teacher and distinguished public health expert and researcher left for his heavenly abode on 17</span><sup style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">th</sup><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;July 2020.</span><br style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><br style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">Prof. Ray had dedicated his entire professional career to public health teaching, training and research. He had brought about a radical change in Community Medicine training by orienting it more towards practical approach i.e. field based training.</span><br style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><br style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">Prof. Ray was the elder son of Prof. Bidhu Sekhar Ray, an eminent medical teacher and former Principal of R.G.Kar Medical College, Calcutta. He was born on 28</span><sup style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">th</sup><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;April 1947. He passed MBBS from R.G. Kar Medical College in the year 1971 and joined “Kadambini” Primary Health Centre, Monteswar, Burdwan as Medical Officer in 1973. He attained Post Graduate degree in Community Medicine from Benaras Hindu University in the year in 1979. After that he joined as faculty in Community Medicine Department of Burdwan Medical College and attained the post of Professor and Head of the department. During his tenure, the department flourished under his able leadership and the teaching and training modalities of Community Medicine was strengthened as well. In 1994 he joined Medical College, Kolkata as Professor and Head and continued his term till his superannuation from West Bengal Medical Education Services. Thereafter he continued to render his expertise as senior faculty/ HoD of Community Medicine in several Medical Colleges of West Bengal, Karnataka and also in Nepal. He was Guest Professor at Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management, Kolkata. He was also program coordinator of PGDMCH course of IGNOU study centre at Medical College, Kolkata. He had a pleasant personality with an ever smiling face and was the loving ‘dada’ and an ideal role model for the junior colleagues. His passion for the discipline and his dedication towards teaching inspired thousands of undergraduate, post graduate and PhD students.</span></p> 2020-10-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Comprehensive Health https://journalofcomprehensivehealth.co.in/jch/article/view/40 Infant Feeding Practices in a Rural Muslim Community in Malda District of West Bengal 2020-10-08T01:09:34+00:00 Nasima Yeasmin mandalnirmalkumar@gmail.com Nirmal Kumar Mandal mandalnirmalkumar@gmail.com <p><strong>Introduction:</strong>&nbsp;Exclusive breast-feeding for first six months of life and semi-solid food after six months in addition to breast feeding is recommended as optimal feeding for infant and young children. There is dearth of data about infant feeding practices among mothers of Muslim Community.&nbsp;<strong>Objectives:</strong>&nbsp;To study infant feeding practices of Muslim mothers and identify feeding problems.<strong>&nbsp;Methods:&nbsp;</strong>A descriptive observational cross-sectional study was conducted on 280 infants in the rural area of Chanchal 2 block of Malda district of West Bengal.&nbsp;<strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;Ninety one per cent mothers of infants below 6 months were currently breast feeding their babies, whereas only 76% were giving exclusive breast feeding. About Seventy-nine per cent infants above 6 months were on exclusively breastfed up to 6 months, 98% continuing breast feeding. Only 42% of children between 6-8 months started complementary feeding, which was raised to 96% among children of 9-11 months. Cause of discontinuation of EBF before six months was stated to be inadequate milk and mothers’ ill health.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;Appropriate interventions are required to train grass-root level workers, involve family members &amp; counsel mothers on infant &amp; young child feeding.</p> 2020-10-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Comprehensive Health https://journalofcomprehensivehealth.co.in/jch/article/view/41 Prevalence and Determinants of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Information Technology Sector Employees of Ahmedabad, Gujarat 2020-10-08T01:16:47+00:00 Sweta Panchal drapviramgami86@yahoo.in Ankit P Viramgami drapviramgami86@yahoo.in Shyam Pingle drapviramgami86@yahoo.in <p>Employees of Information Technology (IT) sectors are always at higher risk of Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs), as multiple risk facors known to be associated with MSDs like poorly designed computer work station, lack of knowledge and attitude for ergonomic posture, long working hours with out sufficient rest breaks and sadentory life style are common in IT workers of India.<strong>&nbsp;Aim:</strong>To study association of MSDs with occupational and lifestyle related factors.&nbsp;<strong>Methodology:</strong>&nbsp;For execution of present cross sectional study, from Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India) based IT industry 184 employees of were enrolled through simple random sampling method. With the usage of pre-tested semiclosed questionnaire sociodemographic, life style and occupation related details were collected. Prevalence of MSDs for different body parts assessed though Modified Nordic Questionnaire. Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) score was used for assessment of ergonomic suitability of workstation. SPSS 17.0 software was used for detailed statistical analysis.<strong>&nbsp;Result:</strong>&nbsp;Among IT workers high prevalence of MSDs (66.8%) was observed. Highest prevalence of MSDs reported for lower back (32.6%), neck (32.1%) and upper back (29.9%). Association of MSDs were observed with their Body Mass Index (BMI), exercise habit and job tenure of the workers. Poor ergonomic design (ROSA score &gt; 4) of computer work station and usage of laptop (compared to desktop) were found associated with high prevalence of MSDs.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;To reduce burden of MSDs, administrative interventions in terms of improving workstation design and regulation of work hours required. Also, training programmes for sensitization regarding workplace ergonomics and healthy life style to be arranged for IT workes.</p> 2020-10-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Comprehensive Health https://journalofcomprehensivehealth.co.in/jch/article/view/42 Indirect Cost of Treatment of Tuberculosis: Could It be A Major Cause for Treatment Failure Leading to Emergence of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis? 2020-10-08T01:21:54+00:00 Emeli Paul Choudhury ucojha@rediffmail.com Kamalesh Sarkar ucojha@rediffmail.com Umesh Chandra Ojha ucojha@rediffmail.com <p><strong>Introduction:</strong>&nbsp;Tuberculosis (TB) patients often incur huge costs due to TB care and the cost is even higher when it’s an MDR-TB treatment. Despite free TB treatment under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP), the indirect cost borne by the patients due to the diagnosis and treatment of TB puts a major economic burden on the patients. This expenditure may affect treatment adherence and might lead to poor outcomes.<br><br><strong>Method:</strong>&nbsp;A cross-sectional study was conducted in a government health facility in Karimganj, Assam with 165 patients from the facility who were at least one month into the treatment. A pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire on sociodemographic, clinical characteristics, and total cost due to TB care was recorded during the interview.<br><br><strong>Result:</strong>&nbsp;Out of 165 study participants, 52.7% belonged to the most productive age group of 19-54 years and 64.2% were male. The median indirect cost was INR 2333.33, which was higher than the direct cost and it contributes 96% of the total median cost. The indirect cost was significantly higher in patients who visited private facility first and patients having hypertension and diabetes. The indirect cost of treatment is significantly higher in MDR-TB patients when compared to non-MDR-TB patients.<br><br><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;Even after the provision of free diagnosis and treatment under RNTCP, the indirect cost puts a major financial burden on the patients and their household, however, when it comes to MDR-TB patients, the burden is even bigger.</p> 2020-10-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Comprehensive Health https://journalofcomprehensivehealth.co.in/jch/article/view/43 Public Health and Social Measures in the Context of COVID-19 – An Online Study of Households in Kolkata and Nearby Districts of West Bengal 2020-10-08T01:25:51+00:00 Bandana Sen vandanadasgupta@gmail.com Subhajit Sarkar vandanadasgupta@gmail.com Shampa Mukherjee (Kundu) vandanadasgupta@gmail.com Sarbani Guha Ghosal vandanadasgupta@gmail.com Utpal Kumar Chattopadhyay vandanadasgupta@gmail.com <p>COVID-19, the disease and ‘‘<em>lockdown</em>’’, the preventive measure, can be termed as major watershed of our times as never before in human history human lives and activities have been halted to such a huge level as combat measure against any disease. Under this unprecedented situation, an online survey was conceptualised to see the situation of students’ households during lock down period.<br><em><strong>Objective:</strong></em>&nbsp;On the basis of that data, feasibility of adherence regarding public health aspects (like washing hands, physical distances, and restricted movement outside house) are discussed through this study. Moreover, the awareness, capability and feasibility of households to abide by the prescribed norms are numerically measured through related social variable and logical insight.<br><em><strong>Method:</strong></em>&nbsp;Though this cross sectional survey data collected during May 15 to May 31<sup>st</sup>&nbsp;2020, three separate indices regarding three major points of guideline e.g. Frequent hand washing, keeping physical distance and staying inside home are devised and finally a composite normalised index is created to judge the overall status of the households.<br><em><strong>Results:</strong></em>&nbsp;This composite index is robust and sensitive enough. It is found to related with the level of living of the households, household size and some other social parameters.<br><em><strong>Conclusion:</strong></em>&nbsp;Respondent households being mostly from Kolkata nearby areas (Howrah, Hooghly, 24 PGS (N) &amp;(S)) of Hindu, General and largely (two-thirds) belonging to 'lower-middle class' (family income per month 15000 or less) can be very well assumed as a representative sample of whole west Bengal. With the help of this composite index we may identify the status of any household in the spectrum of plausibility to adhere the guidelines and public health educative measures can be taken for those households in the long run.</p> 2020-10-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Comprehensive Health https://journalofcomprehensivehealth.co.in/jch/article/view/44 Qualitative Inquiry into Determinants of Decision Making for Therapeutic Mastectomy Amongst Pre and Peri- Menopausal Women, at Urban Gujarat 2020-10-08T01:28:57+00:00 Shailja Shah shailja15.ss@gmail.com Deepak Saxena shailja15.ss@gmail.com Anagha Zope shailja15.ss@gmail.com <p><strong>Introduction:</strong>&nbsp;Breast Cancer (Ca Br) is one of the most common cancer amongst women globally as well in India. Amongst various available modalities of treatment, the most common treatment being advised in Ca Br is mastectomy which is commonly associated with a lot of emotion and mental challenges. For Ca Br patients, any decision in this regard forms an integral part in the diagnosis, confirmatory and treatment phase. The present study aims to explore the psychosocial determinants to undertake surgical decisions.&nbsp;<strong>Objective:</strong>&nbsp;To explore the psychosocial determinants and dilemma of undertaking decision for surgical intervention in Ca Br cases amongst pre and peri-menopausal women.&nbsp;<strong>Methods:</strong>&nbsp;The participants of pre and peri- menopausal women with Ca Br were selected purposively from a tertiary care hospital. The inclusion criteria included patients with Ca Br who underwent a therapeutic mastectomy and willing to be a part of the study were included. Qualitative Inquiry method was used for data collection and Content analysis was done using Atlas.ti.&nbsp;<strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;Five themes emerged from the content analysis. It was observed that patriarchy dominates as decision-makers; surgical decision – is it a ' No –brainer' thing?, the big emotional burden on shoulder, motivators &amp; demotivators, and inspiration. Women's passivity as decision-makers along with emotional distress conditions like fear of loss of feminity was always accompanied. Strong support system and will power were the major motivating factor for participants.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;The study gave a prominent and complex view on determinants of undertaking surgical decisions. Findings from the study would contribute to better strategizing the management of patients in a local context from all aspects and not just from the clinical lens.</p> 2020-10-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Comprehensive Health https://journalofcomprehensivehealth.co.in/jch/article/view/45 A Study on Knowledge and Attitude on Comprehensive Abortion Care (CAC) among Married Women of Reproductive Age Group with a View to Develop an Awareness Program in a Selected Rural Community, West Bengal 2020-10-08T01:35:32+00:00 Barnali Roy basu.mausumi544@gmail.com Moitreyee Choudhuri basu.mausumi544@gmail.com Sinjita Dutta basu.mausumi544@gmail.com Murari Mohan Mandal basu.mausumi544@gmail.com Sanjay Kumar Saha basu.mausumi544@gmail.com Mausumi Basu basu.mausumi544@gmail.com <p><strong>Introduction:</strong>&nbsp;Comprehensive Abortion Care (CAC) implies that women must be able to access high-quality, affordable abortion care in the communities where they live and work.&nbsp;<strong>Objectives:</strong>&nbsp;To assess the knowledge and attitude regarding CAC among married women of reproductive age group in selected rural community, West Bengal India.&nbsp;<strong>Materials and Methods:</strong>&nbsp;A descriptive type of observational study, cross sectional in design was conducted among 400 married women of reproductive age group in selected villages of Gazole and Bamongla Block of Malda District using a pre designed pre tested structured schedule from 9/2017 to 9/2018, a period of 1 year. Data were tabulated in Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20.0.<strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;About 61.5% belonged to age group of 25-35 years,78.5% followed Hinduism, 35% completed Secondary education,59.5% came from nuclear family,75.5% were home makers , 43% had one child,,64% not opted for abortion, 66% had adequate knowledge,78% had positive attitude ,55.5% knew meaning of abortion, 78.5% knew place for termination of pregnancy,76.5% told best method to prevent unwanted pregnancy, 87.5% told why Comprehensive Abortion Care is important.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;Awareness programme on Comprehensive Abortion Care through mass media and interpersonal communication should be initiated at programmatic level.</p> 2020-10-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Comprehensive Health https://journalofcomprehensivehealth.co.in/jch/article/view/46 Occupational Stress among Medical Practitioners in Gandhinagar City, Gujarat: A Cross-sectional Study 2020-10-08T10:21:51+00:00 Anish Kumar Sinha asinha@iiphg.org Apurva Kumar Pandya asinha@iiphg.org Shyam Pingle asinha@iiphg.org <p><strong style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Introduction:</strong><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;It is well established that medical practitioners experience high levels of job stress. This study assessed the perceived stress and stressors among medical practitioners from various specialities in Gandhinagar City of the Gujarat State.</span><br style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><br style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Materials and Methods:</strong><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;Using a cross-sectional research design, 72 medical practitioners, from different specialities and practice settings in Gandhinagar City of the Gujarat State, were briefly interviewed using the semi-structured interview protocol and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), during the period from May to June 2019.</span><br style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><br style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Results:</strong><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;The study showed that the majority of medical practitioners had a moderate level of stress (70%), and 11% of them had a severe level of stress. A chi-square test of independence revealed that gender (p=.0029), speciality (p=.0021), practice setting (p=.021), and experience (p=.001) were statistically significant for stress levels. Further, the average PSS score differed significantly according to stressors, namely, work related (p=.004), financial (p=.008), family (p=.049), excessive workload (p=.001), night duty (p=.012) and long working hours (p=.000). However, most medical practitioners did not perceive stress as a problem, and perhaps for that reason necessary actions for stress management were not reported by them.</span><br style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><br style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"><strong style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Conclusion:</strong><span style="color: #000000; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">&nbsp;Present study reported high level of stress among medical practitioners, indicating a critical need to address occupational stress among medical practitioners in Gandhinagar City. Immediate actions are warranted for preventing adverse effect of stress on overall health and wellbeing of medical practitioners.. Future study on a large sample that assesses stress, mental health risk, and coping responses would be important step.</span></p> 2020-10-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Comprehensive Health