Journal of Comprehensive Health <p>Journal of Comprehensive Health is the official publication of Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine, West Bengal Chapter. The Journal aims to provide an easily accessible, peer-reviewed, international evidence-base to encourage communication among those engaged in the research, teaching, and application of epidemiology of both communicable and non-communicable disease, including research into health and medical care. Initially two issues will be published annually in electronic format in January and July. The journal allows free access (Open Access) to its contents. The journal’s full text will be available online at</p> Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine en-US Journal of Comprehensive Health 2347-498X Integrating Indian Post and National Tuberculosis Elimination Program - A new way ahead <p>COVID-19 and its response have a significant influence on healthcare services throughout the world and are likely to put the National Tuberculosis Elimination Program (NTEP) under immense pressure. Mitigation actions taken by the government to prevent the spread of infection have led to missed diagnoses and a halt in services such as active case finding, contact tracing, and follow-ups. Diagnostic delays have created a gap in the TB care chain, increasing mortality rates and morbidity, and can worsen the disease burden in marginalized communities. Closing these gaps requires intervention at the population and government levels. Integrating the Indian Post with the National Tuberculosis Elimination Program will be a milestone in the specimen transport system and will ultimately result in better diagnosis and treatment of Tuberculosis.</p> Kirti Garg Anjali Panwar Nandita Sharma Yogesh Bahurupi Mahendra Singh Pradeep Aggarwal Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Comprehensive Health 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 2 94 96 10.53553/JCH.v09i02.008 Application of Historical Constructs of Pandemic in COVID 19 <p>Pandemics have been there since the start of human civilisation. Every pandemic event has its own unique identity; yet similarities are there. To understand in quick time the cataclysmic unfolding and the human response of the recent COVID 19 pandemic, it is imperative we take lessons from historical case studies and constructs identified therein. This can show the gaps in our response and help us prepare better for future events. The unique power of history to cater all kinds of population, from scholars to general public, can be used as an effective public health tool in this context.</p> Rahul Das Bobby Paul Lina Bandyopadhyay Madhumita Bhattacharya Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Comprehensive Health 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 2 97 100 10.53553/JCH.v09i02.009 Public Health Dimensions of Autism Spectrum Disorder in India: An Overview <p>The global prevalence of an early-onset of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is ~1% and is a priority for the global mental health agenda (1). 78 million people worldwide are affected by autism and the impact on the individuals and families are enormous (2). Autistic Spectrum Disorder is a pervasive neurobehavioral disorder characterized by qualitative impairment in social interaction, communication and repetitive and stereotypic patterns of interests and activities (3). INCLEN study suggests that ASD prevalence across five States in north and west India was as high as one in 125 children between 2-6 years age group and one in 80 among children in 6-9 years age; overall the prevalence in India is estimated to be 1in 89(4). Autism was first described in 1943 among children born in 1930s and prevalence of autism is on the rise as reported from all over the world. Early intervention can ameliorate the morbidity significantly (5). Autism Spectrum Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder which poses a great challenge to individuals and to societies not just in early ages but across lifespan due to its pervasive nature.</p> Richa Tiwari Kakali Purkayastha Sheffali Gulati Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Comprehensive Health 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 2 57 62 10.53553/JCH.v09i02.002 Public Health Proficiency of Fresh Indian Medical Graduates &Ways and Means of Enhancing it <p>Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India is committed to achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) for its entire 1.4 billion population living in our 6.6 lakh plus villages and nearly 3000 towns/ cities. Delivery of UHC is predominantly dependent upon our primary health care system of which human resources for health (HRH) forms a crucial component. The HRH responsible for delivering primary health care comprises of a team of about 40 individuals consisting of two Health Assistants, ten to twelve Multipurpose Health Workers (Female and Male) and about thirty ASHA Volunteers besides one or two Medical Officer/s. </p> Ranjan Das Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Comprehensive Health 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 2 63 68 10.53553/JCH.v09i02.003 37th IAPSMWBCON 2021 (online) <p>The 37th Annual conference of the Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine, West Bengal Chapter was held on 3rd and 4th December in virtual mode. It was attended by 220 participants mostly from West Bengal but from outside West Bengal too.</p> <p>The conference was started with the inauguration session. Prof. Suneela Garg (President of IAPSM), Prof. A Kadri (Secretary of IAPSM), Prof. Tutul Chatterjee (President of IAPSM WB Chapter), Prof. Indira Dey (Secretary of IAPSM WB Chapter) and Dr. J C Sardar (Organising Chairperson) delivered their warm greetings and declared the ceremony open. Dr Sandip Ghosh (Principal, R G Kar Medical College) greeted all the participants. This was followed by the Presentation of IAPSM (WB) Grant for Best Research Project (initiated by Prof. Akalanka Bhandari) 2020 by Dr Biswadip Chattopadhyay (Junior Resident, AIIH &amp; PH, Kolkata)</p> Rivu Basu Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Comprehensive Health 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 2 114 115 Post-Graduate theory examination: Should we relook into the assessment tool? <p>In this editorial, I like to share some of my views and concerns regarding the MD-Community Medicine theory examination conducted by The West Bengal University of Health Sciences. Though this review focuses particularly on the Community Medicine speciality of the WBUHS, some of these may be relevant for other specialities and some other Universities as well. Opinions expressed here are based on my experiences as a paper-setter and examiner for MD examinations of the WBUHS and some other Universities for several years.</p> Samir Dasgupta Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Comprehensive Health 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 2 52 56 10.53553/JCH.v09i02.001 Cholera outbreak in Kamarhati municipality of West Bengal: Secondary data analysis of a rapid epidemic response <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>In September, 2021, an outbreak of acute diarrhoeal disease affected different wards of Kamarhati municipality of West Bengal. An epidemic investigation was conducted with the objective of identifying the time, place and person distribution of the epidemic. <strong>Methods</strong>: In this institution based cross-sectional study, an epidemic response team of College of Medicine and Sagore Dutta Hospital (CoMSDH) visited the patients admitted in the infectious diseases ward of the institute and enquired them using a pre-designed proforma. Stools samples were collected and sent for analysis to National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases (NICED), West Bengal. The team also visited the affected wards and collected water samples for laboratory investigations. Collected data were collated in Google sheets and requisite analyses were done in Google sheet, online spreadsheet software. Spatial distributions of cases were shown using QGIS v2.38.<strong>Results</strong>: 208 patients admitted in infectious diseases ward of CoMSDH, Kamarhati, Kolkata in between 2nd - 13th September, 2021 were interviewed. The epidemic curve showed a rapid rise on 07th September, 2021 (57 cases) followed by a gradual fall over next 5 days. Majority of cases were clustered in Ward 1,2 and 3 of Kamarhati municipality. The attack rate was highest among the geriatric age group (≥60 years) followed by 19-60 years age group. Abdominal Pain (35.71%) and vomiting (28.57%) were commonly associated symptoms. Majority of the respondents (172, 87.76%) used intermittent tap water supply from local municipalities, followed by purchased mineral water (20, 10.20%) and water from Tala tank (4, 2.04%) for their drinking purpose. Stool and water samples revealed the presence of Vibrio Cholerae, O139 ogawa serotype. <strong>Conclusion</strong>:On the basis of the interim analysis, health education was initiated on the domestic treatment of water by boiling or using chlorine solution. Additionally, steps were taken for water treatment at the water treatment plants. This assisted in controlling the outbreak.</p> Soumalya Ray Tanmoy Mukherjee Avijit Das Barenya Chattopadhyay Dipta Kanti Mukhopadhyay Raghunath Misra Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Comprehensive Health 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 2 69 74 10.53553/JCH.v09i02.004 Assessment of Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices and its Relation with Nutritional Status of Under Two Children: A Community Based Study at Malda Town, West Bengal <p><strong>Background</strong>: Correct practices of nutrition remains the cornerstone to combat the problem of under nutrition among the children. Most important of them is propriety of breast feeding. Its initiation within an hour of birth is important for both mother and child as the first breast milk (colostrums) is considered to be highly nutritious and has antibodies that protect the new-born from serious diseases. The study was conducted to assess the IYCF practices among the under two children and the relationship between the aforesaid practices and the nutritional status of the study participants of a district town of West Bengal. <strong>Methods</strong>: It was a community based observational study, cross-sectional in design conducted among children aged less than twenty four months in a district town of West Bengal using cluster sampling method among 390 participants. <strong>Results</strong>: The study revealed that less than half (47.9%) of mothers initiated breast feeding within one hour of birth. Exclusive breast feeding rate at 6 months was 68.3% and 84.3%mothers were continuing breast feeding at two years age of the child. Optimal diversity of food was seen among 30.3% eligible children. The proportion of underweight and stunting was 40.7% and 43.6% respectively and were significantly related to initiation of breast feeding in one hour, adequate food diversity, adequate meal frequency, age adjusted minimum acceptable diet and exposure to bottle feeding. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study reiterates that appropriate feeding practices in first two years of life are crucial to attain proper growth of the children in their later life.</p> Aniruddha Chakraborty Sujishnu Mukhopadhyay Nazrul Mallick Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Comprehensive Health 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 2 75 82 10.53553/JCH.v09i02.005 iPAD use in Graduate Medical Education: A Pilot study from A Medical College of West Bengal, India <p>Introduction: National Medical Commission (NMC) has stressed upon online and blended learning and has recommended strongly for digital learning in undergraduate medical education. Aims &amp; Objectives: to assess the prevalence of usage and perceptions towards technology among medical faculty members in study setting. Methods: an Institution-based cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaire was conducted for 3 months among forty-six teaching faculty over pre and para clinical departments of a medical college of West Bengal, who have received induction training and were using iPAD for teaching-learning. Results: among total 46 participants, 16 were from pre-clinical and 30 from different para-clinical departments. Though the duration of smartphone usage is more than 2 years by 2/3rd of them, less than ½ were found to be habituated with computer usage. 31 (67.39%) participants were found to use iPAD 3.01±1.00 hours for personal use and 19 (41.30%) use iPAD for 4.49±2.88 hours for educational purpose. More than 60% of participants recommended iPAD introduction in medical education. Conclusion: usage of iPAD among medical teachers has been widely accepted chiefly in acquiring wide range of resources, disseminating knowledge and managing time more effectively. Blended learning with compulsory digital learning is expected to broaden horizon of future medical education.</p> Satabdi Mitra Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Comprehensive Health 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 2 83 87 10.53553/JCH.v09i02.006 Basic Necessities and Health Indicators of Tribal Population of India: A Secondary Analysis from National Family Health Survey-IV <p><strong>Background:</strong> Inequalities within tribal communities across India remain poorly understood. Accessibility to resources or health care is observed as a principle of primary health care. The accessibility factor has been least studied among the indigenous groups of country. <strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the correlation between accessibility of services and health indicators among tribal population of India using the indicators from National Family Health Survey report 2015-16. <strong>Methods: </strong>An ecological correlation using district reports of National Health and Family Survey-IV (2015-16) was conducted. The reports of tribal districts were used to select and analyze core health and nutrition indicators (dependent variables). Literacy, electricity, altitude, improved drinking water and sanitation facility were taken as accessibility to necessary indicators from the reports (independent variables). <strong>Results: </strong>Prevalence of diarrhea (r: -0.18, p: 0.80) and symptoms of acute respiratory illnesses (r:0.30, p:0.003) among children decreased with improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. Better literacy, water accessibility, electricity and sanitation were negatively correlated with prevalence of anemia and underweight among adults, however the prevalence of overweight, high blood sugar and high blood pressure increased. The increase in altitude was negatively correlated with nutritional indicators viz., prevalence of stunting (r: -0.34, p&lt;0.001), wasting (r: -0.33, p&lt;0.001) and underweight (r: -0.41, p&lt;0.001) among children. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The tribal districts with better accessibility to basic necessities fared better in terms of core health and nutrition indicators.</p> Mitasha Singh Shweta Goswami Akshay Minhas Des Raj Sunil Raina Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Comprehensive Health 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 2 88 93 10.53553/JCH.v09i02.007 Dr Saswati Nandy <p>.</p> Tapobrata Prabha Srivastava Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Comprehensive Health 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 2 112 112 Dr Abantika Bhattacharya <p>OBITUARY DR ABANTIKA BHATTACHARYA</p> DR SHAMIMA YASMIN PROF (DR) BAIJAYANTI BAUR Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Comprehensive Health 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 2 113 113 Road-map to Child COVID-19 Vaccination in India <p>Novel Corona Virus, causing Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in human, has spread rapidly around the globe since 2019. Though the face of this pandemic (Declared by WHO on 11th March, 2020) mostly are the adults, children of all ages are also susceptible to COVID-19 infection and can manifest severe symptoms.[1] Though majority of COVID-19 cases in children are mild or asymptomatic, like 18.4/100,000 children of 0–4 years of age and 10.6/100,000 children of 5–17 years of age required hospitalization ,[2] of which one-third required intensive care.[3] Presence of risk features like co-morbidities, early neonate, late adolescence and obesity enhance the chance of intensive care admission among children.[4] S. Bhopal et al has stated in their study, by collating the data of child death due to COVID from all seven heavily affected countries, that only 0.03% of children had died from COVID infection, which is far less than all the other causes of child death (Unintentional injury, Lower Respiratory Tract Infection related deaths etc.).[5] Despite this fact, life of every child is important to us, so vaccinating them against novel corona virus disease can mitigate the adverse health events among them. Other benefits of vaccinating children are to curtail the transmission of corona virus (British children aged from two to around twelve are given nasal spray for flu, largely to protect their grandparents)[6] and also to envisage the negative social impact of COVID upon them.</p> Trina Sengupta Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Comprehensive Health 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 2 101 102 10.53553/JCH.v09i02.010 Is Life losing its Worth in the eyes of today’s Children? A review on Suicidal tendencies <p>Suicidal attempts and suicides among children &amp; teenagers are on rise in past few years. Suicide is the second leading cause of death among those aged 10–24 years. Modern era has witnessed that the children have the ability to plan and execute a suicidal act. Considering such valuable loss of lives by suicide, it is of serious public health concern. Suicide by a child causes significant grief and depression for siblings, parents, and near ones exposed to suicide. Mental health and social distress among children must be paid great attention to reduce suicidal behaviour.</p> Shreya Agarwal Radhika Yadav Naveen Diwan Sweta Yadav Saurabh Kumar Pradeep Aggarwal Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Comprehensive Health 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 2 103 105 10.53553/JCH.v09i02.011 (Non)adhering to measures to control COVID 19: Insights from Behavioral Economics <p>It is now apparent that as a measure to contain Covid-19 pandemic the scope for strict lockdown is rather limited because of its serious negative impact on the lives and livelihood of people. Therefore measures such as wearing masks, washing hands and avoiding crowded places turn out to be the most important ways of preventing spread of the virus. However, adoption of and adherence to these practices depends largely on voluntary compliance as it is difficult to strictly monitor people’s behavior. In this paper the authors argue that for better results we need to first understand the reasons for non-adherence, and in an attempt to understand, the emerging field of behavioral economics can be of help. Different elements of behavioral economics, such as, the prospect theory with its cognitive biases like heuristics, anchoring, salience, and above all, social norms are capable of explaining many of the behaviors that have relevance to management of the pandemic. The moral philosophic position that underlies behavioral economics can be located somewhere between libertarianism and paternalism. While libertarianism tends to prioritize an individual’s freedom to choose, paternalism takes the view that the individual may not always know what is good for her/him. ‘Libertarian paternalism’, on the other hand, would allow public institutions to influence one’s behavior while respecting freedom of choice. In the absence of hard data, popular media reports and anecdotal evidence have been used in this essentially interpretative exercise.</p> Rivu Basu Achin Chakraborty Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Comprehensive Health 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 2 106 111 10.53553/JCH.v09i02.012